The incident occurred midway through the third period of Pittsburgh's 2-1 loss to the Jets Monday when Letang slammed Burmistrov from behind, driving him into the boards.
Letang was assessed a minor penalty for boarding.
The 24-year-old Letang, who leads the Penguins in scoring with seven points, will miss Tuesday's game in Minnesota and Thursday's home encounter against the Montreal Canadiens.
He will be eligible to return October 22 for Pittsburgh game against the New Jersey Devils.
(Writing by Steve Keating in Toronto; Editing by Frank Pingue)