The 29-year-old Virginia Tech product spent his first six seasons with the Tennessee Titans, where he recorded 162 tackles with two sacks and six interceptions. He started five games.
Fuller and Lions head coach Jim Schwartz have reunited as Schwartz served as Tennessee's defensive coordinator from 2001-2008.
The Titans originally selected Fuller in the fourth round of the 2005 NFL Draft.
Detroit also released guard Jacques McClendon.