Jackson, signed to a two-year contract by Cleveland after leading the 2010 Super Bowl champion Green Bay Packers in rushing, has been bothered by a turf toe ailment throughout the preseason. He was slated to be the backup to standout Peyton Hillis, a role that will now be assumed by second-year pro Montario Hardesty.
The 25-year-old compiled career-bests of 703 rushing yards and 43 receptions with Green Bay last season, while scoring a total of four touchdowns.
Cleveland also waived quarterback Jarrett Brown, offensive linemen Dominic Alford and Jarrod Shaw, fullback Tyler Clutts, running back Quinn Porter, linebackers Archie Donald and Brian Smith, defensive lineman Brian Sanford and wide receiver Rod Windsor.
The Browns began the trimming process cutting 17 players on Saturday morning. A total of 16 were waived, while wide receiver Demetrius Williams had his contract terminated.
Williams appeared in two games for the Browns last year after spending four seasons with Baltimore. He has 63 career receptions.
Those waived Saturday were offensive linemen Branndon Braxton, Calton Ford and Phil Trautwein; defensive linemen Andre Carroll, Travis Ivey and Ko Quaye; wide receivers L.J. Castile and Chris Matthews; defensive backs Coye Francies, Carl Gettis, Ramzee Robinson and DeAngelo Smith; linebackers Eric Gordon, Steve Octavien and Sidney Tarver; and tight end Evan Frosch.