Dominic Oduro and Cory Gibbs both recorded goals in the first half to give Chicago, now unbeaten in its last four matches, its second consecutive win.
Oduro struck in the 17th minute, taking a pass from Pavel Pardo on a fast break before slotting his shot past Colorado goalkeeper Matt Pickens for his ninth goal of the year.
Gibbs doubled the lead in the 36th minute, heading home a Sebastian Grazzini cross to seal all three points.
Chicago remains in seventh place in the Eastern Conference, but has accumulated 27 points on the season, eight of which have in the past four matches.
With the loss, Colorado's unbeaten streak comes to a halt at seven games, keeping the club in fourth place in the Western Conference.
Chicago (4-7-15) returns to MLS action on September 10 when it faces the San Jose Earthquakes at Buck Shaw Stadium, while Colorado (10-7-11) will head to the Home Depot Center and play the Los Angeles Galaxy on September 9.