The 43-year-old DeBoer spent the past three seasons as the coach of the Florida Panthers. He was fired after failing to lead the team to the playoffs during his tenure.
DeBoer succeeds Jacques Lemaire, who came out of retirement in midseason after rookie coach John MacLean was fired in December. However, Lemaire's return could not prevent the Devils from missing the playoffs for the first time since 1996.
The coaching change is the ninth for the Devils since the late Pat Burns stepped down after being diagnosed with cancer in 2005.
DeBoer posted a 103-107-36 record with the Panthers.