Robinson, who spent the past five seasons in Green Bay, replaces Ray Sherman.
Sherman was the receivers coach the past four seasons and interviewed for the Cowboys' head coaching vacancy after the season. Jason Garrett became the head coach and Sherman's contract as an assistant coach wasn't renewed.
Robinson has been an NFL assistant for 21 years after six seasons as a player. He has coached for Atlanta (1990-93), Indianapolis (1994-97), the New York Giants (1998-2003), New Orleans (2004-05) and Green Bay.
During Robinson's time with the Giants, Garrett was a backup quarterback in New York.
Among the receivers Robinson will work with in Dallas are two-time Pro Bowler Miles Austin, Roy Willams and Dez Bryant, coming off a shortened but solid rookie season.
Robinson played for the Giants (1976-79), San Francisco (1980) and Denver (1981) after being a 15th-round pick in the 1985 draft out of Georgia Tech. He had 85 career receptions for 1,437 yards and six touchdowns in 58 NFL games.
He led the Giants in receptions in 1977 and 1978. He scored the first New York touchdown in Giants Stadium history, on a 30-yard pass from Craig Morton against Dallas on Oct. 10, 1976.