The defending Stanley Cup champions swept the Kings in four games for the first time since 1981-82, when they went 3-0-0 against them.
Patrick Sharp continued his success against Los Angeles, scoring two goals and assisting on another. His three points gave him eight this season against the Kings.
Sharp's two goals gave Chicago the lead both times until Ryan Smyth tied it 3-3 for the Kings on a drive that broke his stick at 12:42 of the third.
Toews answered 1:51 later, when he scored in traffic after Jonathan Quick had already made one save, drawing cheers from a contingent of red-clad Hawks fans sitting behind their bench.
Corey Crawford made 26 saves as Chicago avoided a four-game skid for the first time this season.
The Kings dropped their fourth in a row, giving them their second such losing streak this season.
Sharp's second goal made it 3-2 early in the third off Alex Martinez's turnover. Smyth tied it on a power play after Toews was sent off for high sticking.
Sharp's first goal, a power-play score, gave the Hawks a 2-1 lead at 7:11 of the second. Smyth tied it on a breakaway at 18:17 of the period.
Chicago tied the game at 1-all on Marian Hossa's power-play goal at 18:42 of the first. Hossa drove to the net with none of the Kings stopping him for his ninth goal of the season and first since Nov. 14 against Anaheim.
The Kings led 1-0 when Michal Handzus redirected Jack Johnson's long wrist shot from center ice at 4:28 of the first.
Notes: Handzus' goal was his first since Nov. 20 at Boston. ... The Hawks are 6-2-0 in back-to-back games, their eighth of 19 such sets this season. Only Minnesota will play more back-to-backs (19) in the Western Conference. ... RW Justin Williams earned a save in his 100th game with the Kings. ... Sharp has 13 multipoint games, a team high.