R.J. Umberger's short-handed goal drew Columbus to 2-1 early in the second period, but Sharp countered with his second and third goals of the season, the first also coming short-handed, to turn the game around.
A capacity crowd booed the Blue Jackets — opening their 10th season — in the third period when they failed to get off a shot on a power play.
Kristian Huselius added a goal in new coach Scott Arniel's Columbus debut.
Sharp took over the game after Columbus halved the lead.
Midway through the period, he countered with a short-handed goal of his own after Columbus' Antoine Vermette gave up the puck with an unforced mistake in the offensive zone. Sharp swooped in on a 2-on-1 at the other end, netting a shot from near the left dot.
Two minutes later, Troy Brouwer's shot from a hard angle was deflected by goalie Steve Mason off his left leg pad — but the puck went directly to a waiting Sharp, who jammed it in for his third of the season.
Sharp had nine shots through two periods, almost half Columbus' total (20). He finished with 13 shots on goal, easily surpassing his career best of 10.
A capacity crowd roared on every hit and shot over the first 9 minutes, but the Blackhawks quieted them with a quick offensive burst.
First Stalberg took a pass from Jack Skille, split two defenders as he skated through the neutral zone and then flicked a shot that glanced off Mason's upper right arm and into the net.
Just 1:03 later, Jassen Cullimore's shot from the right boards deflected off Kopecky, who was standing in the crease in front of Mason. The puck kicked out near the right hash, with Hossa collecting it and beating Mason inside the far post.
The Blue Jackets twice hit posts in the opening few minutes, first Nikita Filatov and then Derek Dorsett.
A little over a minute into the second period, Umberger was stopped by Turco on a short-handed rush, but Umberger flicked a backhander from the back boards that somehow eluded Turco to cut the lead to a goal.
NOTES: The Blackhawks were without Patrick Kane, who didn't make the trip because of an undisclosed illness. ... Huselius' goal was his third of the season and gave him goals in all three Columbus games. ... Niklas Hjalmarsson also didn't play for Chicago, serving the second of his two-game suspension for a hit on Buffalo's Jason Pominville. ... Hossa has points in all five Blackhawks games, with four goals and three assists.