Klitschko's management group announced on Friday that the holder of the IBF, WBO and IBO belts has lined up Peter to replace Russian Alexander Povetkin, whom he was originally slated to fight.
Povetkin, a former Olympic champion, failed to appear at a news conference this month to promote the open-air fight at Frankfurt's soccer stadium.
Klitschko said his previous fight against Peter in 2005 was "one of the hardest of my career."
Peter sent Klitschko to the canvas three times before losing on points to the Ukrainian.
Klitschko has 54 victories in 57 fights, while Peter is 34-3.