Cabanas, who has been ruled out of the World Cup, is recovering after being shot in the head at point-blank range 3½ months ago in a Mexico City bar. Cabanas, who plays for Mexico's Club America, had been expected to be Paraguay's top attacking player.
Barrios, who has never played for Paraguay, is a 25-year-old forward who was born in Argentina. He has 18 goals this season for Borussia Dortmund.
"I got my Paraguay nationality in March because my mother was born in Paraguay," he said Tuesday in a radio interview. "I want to thank everyone who has had confidence in me and I hope to fit it well with my new teammates."
Manchester City forward Roque Santa Cruz was included after missing time this season with knee and calf injuries. He has just three goals in 17 Premier League games this season.
Paraguay has exhibitions against North Korea on May 15 in Switzerland, at Ireland on May 25, against Ivory Coast on May 30 in France, and against and Greece on June 2 in Switzerland. Paraguay is in a first-round group with World Cup champion Italy, Slovakia and New Zealand.
Final rosters are due June 1, but teams can make substitutions up until 24 hours before their opener.
Goalkeepers: Diego Barreto (Cerro Porteno), Aldo Bobadilla (Independiente Medellin, Colombia), Justo Villar (Valladolid, Spain)
Defenders: Antolin Alcaraz (Brugge, Belgium), Carlos Bonet (Olimpia, Paraguay), Julio Cesar Caceres (Atletico Mineiro, Brazil), Denis Caniza (Leon, Mexico), Paulo Da Silva (Sunderland, England), Julio Manzur (Olimpia, Paraguay), Claudio Morel (Boca Juniors, Argentina), Aureliano Torres (San Lorenzo, Argentina), Dario Veron (Pumas UNAM, Mexico)
Midfielders: Sergio Aquino (Libertad), Edgar Barreto (Atalanta, Italy), Marcos Caceres (Racing Club, Argentina), Victor Caceres (Libertad), Marcelo Estigarribia (Newell's Old Boys, Argentina), Eduardo Ledesma (Lanus, Argentina), Nestor Ortigoza (Argentinos Juniors, Argentina), Cristian Riveros (Cruz Azul, Mexico), Jonathan Santana (Wolfsburg, Germany) Enrique Vera (Liga de Quito, Ecuador)
Forwards: Jorge Achucarro (Newell's Old Boys, Argentina), Lucas Barrios (Borussia Dortmund, Germany), Edgar Benitez (Pachuca, Mexico), Oscar Cardozo (Benfica, Lisbon), Rodolfo Gamarra (Libertad), Osvaldo Martinez (Monterrey, Mexico), Roque Santa Cruz (Manchester City, England), Nelson Haedo Valdez (Borussia Dortmund, Germany)