Dave Bolland picked off an errant pass by the Kings' Brad Richardson at center ice and made a long pass to Sharp, who skated in and beat goalie Jonathan Quick.
Sharp opened the scoring for Chicago in the first period, Kris Versteeg added a goal, and Antti Niemi stopped 28 shots in his first start in four games.
Anze Kopitar and Dustin Brown scored for the Kings, and Quick made 40 saves.
Kopitar got his 31st goal of the season when his wrist shot from the right circle on a power play eluded Niemi and gave the Kings a 2-1 lead in the second. It came less than 2 minutes after Brown tied it with a wraparound shot through Niemi's legs.
Versteeg's rebound goal through traffic in front of the net — less than 2 minutes after Kopitar's score — tied it at 2.
Chicago's Adam Burish wasted little time in making an impact in his first game of the season following knee surgery. He took a pass behind the net and fed Sharp who whiffed and then scored on his second try for a 1-0 lead less than 3 minutes into the game. Seconds later Burish dropped the gloves with the Kings' Rich Clune and the fight brought a rousing cheer from the crowd at the United Center.
Quick held off a Chicago power play in the first — 1:41 of it with the Blackhawks holding a two-man advantage — when Duncan Keith's shot hit the post.
NOTES: It was the third meeting of the season between the teams and first since November. Chicago leads 2-1. Los Angeles won the previous meeting in a shootout. The teams face off again in eight days. ... Burish tore the ACL in his right knee during a preseason game at Minnesota on Sept. 20 and underwent surgery five days later. He was activated from the injured reserve list last weekend. ... The Blackhawks honored former star and Hall of Famer Denis Savard. Savard also coached the team for 147 games before he was fired four games into last season.