science

EyePoppers: The Best Science Photos of the Week
The latest findings in the world of science, as told through pictures. By John Brandon

A Tearless Eye

In 1933, Henrik Sjogren wrote a doctoral thesis about a disease that causes tear ducts to dry up, infecting exocrine glands in the eye. The disorder, now known as Sjogren's syndrome, infects about 4 million people in the U.S. 

Research that appeared in the Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie journal late last year in Germany reveals that a closer cooperation between the fields of rheumatology and ophthalmology could help patients avoid long-term complications by spotting the warning signs.

<a href="http://www.SpringerImages.com">SpringerImages</a>

Moth Head, Up Close

Notice the coiled proboscis on this moth -- the brown section just below the eyes, used to drink nectar and infuriate farmers the world over. The image was scanned with a powerful colored scanning electron micrograph. The large red eyes on either side of the mouth can scan in multiple directions. 

Moths are a vastly misunderstood insect, different from butterflies, and almost impossible to classify since there are at least 150,000 different species, many of which are nocturnal.

Thierry Berrod, Mona Lisa Production / <a href="http://www.sciencephoto.com">Science Photo Library</a>

A Cyclops Copepod

This one-eyed crustacean, called a cyclops copepod, is about 0.5 millimeters long and has a black eye (but some have a red eye and grow as big as 5 millimeters long). This image was taken with a light micrograph. Part of the general classification of "sea plankton" and one of the most common components, copepod are found floating on the surface of freshwater ponds.

Roland Birke/Peter Arnold Inc / <a href="http://www.sciencephoto.com">Science Photo Library</a>

Your Brain Is the New Computer

As you're reading this sentence, your brain is reprogramming itself. Neurons are connected in a complex weave, as shown in this image. Unlike computers today, which follow a pre-determined set of routines and must follow these programs in sequential order (one reason even the most advanced robots could never start thinking on their own), the brain is a collection of more than a million neurons that can adapt on the fly and re-program "routines" at will. 

New research at the Graz University of Technology in Austria, part of a new project called Brain-i-Nets, suggests that future computers could adapt in a similar fashion. The three-year project is well-funded and well-intentioned: They want to invent a new kind of PC.

TU Graz/IGI

How Cancer Spreads

The term missegregation is an important one in the study of cancer cells. In a recent study at Dartmouth Medical School, researchers Sarah Thompson and Duane Compton found that the normal cells shown in these scans do not proliferate their chromosomes like abnormal cells do, such as those infected by a tumor. 

Thompson and Compton marked cells with a single fluorescent trace and were able to induce missegregation (a kind of activation for chromosone replication) and track the markings. The research is important because it could lead to a method for suppressing cancer cell growth.

Sarah L. Thompson, Duane A. Compton, Dartmouth Medical School / Journal of Cell Biology

How Cancer Spreads

The term missegregation is an important one in the study of cancer cells. In a recent study at Dartmouth Medical School, researchers Sarah Thompson and Duane Compton found that the normal cells shown in these scans do not proliferate their chromosomes like abnormal cells do, such as those infected by a tumor. 

Thompson and Compton marked cells with a single fluorescent trace and were able to induce missegregation (a kind of activation for chromosone replication) and track the markings. The research is important because it could lead to a method for suppressing cancer cell growth.

Sarah L. Thompson, Duane A. Compton, Dartmouth Medical School / Journal of Cell Biology

Electrons on a Bumpy Ride

The research leading to the Transport series of pictures (of which this image is a part) was inspired by the experiments of Mark Topinka, Brian Leroy, and professor Robert Westervelt at Harvard; their work actually measured the paths taken by the electrons. 

Here we see flow patterns for electrons riding over a bumpy landscape, which is what they experience in a two-dimensional electron gas -- picture a sea of electrons confined to a sheet. The bumps they encounter are due to charged atoms lying above the sheet. The electrons have more than enough energy to ride over any bump, and the concentrations of electron flow into the branches seen here are recently discovered indirect effects of that bumpy ride.

Eric J. Heller, Harvard University

Hylid Frog

In the 1980's, reports accumulated about the decline of frogs and toads in pristine environments such as nature reserves and parks. This greatly concerned ecologists who look at amphibians as an indicator species, a warning of environmental stress. 

The life cycle of amphibians -- often egg to tadpole (or other water-living larva) to land-based adult -- relies upon both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Therefore, because they lack such exterior protection as scales, feathers and hair, they are very sensitive to changes that may occur in their external environment.

Joseph Kiesecker, Pennsylvania State University

Take Antibiotics, Get Sick?

This low-res scan, which shows an invading pathogen called neutrophil mounting an assault against a bacterial agent (in red), might help answer an age-old question. For years, doctors have warned that taking antibiotics over a long period might actually weaken the immune system and make us more susceptible to illness, a worrisome contradiction. 

In the image, the "good" bacterium can't ward off new attacks, like a goalie in soccer who plays poorly over time as his defensive team improves. This same dynamic occurs in the immune system, a give and take between bacteria that is supposed to be in your body and an antiobiotic that takes over for a while when you're sick.

Jeffrey Weiser, PhD, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Supernova Ignites!

When does a supernova not act like a supernova? In this image, taken with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array and then turned into an artistic rendering, astronomers show how a star can explodes without the usual gamma rays, a distinct form of electromechanical radiation that causes a massive celestial event. 

Interestingly, according to researchers at Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, only about one out of hundred supernovas actually release gamma rays. This image, while fantastic, shows a burst of materials blasting in a sphere, moving only at about 3 percent of the speed of light.

Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF

Slow-Releasing Nanoburrs

Next time you drink herbal tea, think about this image – it's a computer reproduction that originated as a tiny piece of burdock, the herbal substance. The image, a nanoburr, shows how protein fragments can be used for slow-releasing drug therapies. For patients with heart disease or in cases where a stent must be used to inject medicine, a nanoburr could be used as an alternative because the drug would attach to artery walls and do their handiwork over time. The particles could also be used to seek out and destroy tumors. The image shown represents a nanoburr that is just 60 nanometers in diameter.

MIT

Total Eclipse, Totally Cool

This stunning solar eclipse is a composite of nine images (taken with a Canon 200mm lens) and 38 eclipse images layered over one another. The eclipse occurred in July. 

Miloslav Druckmüller and colleagues took the photos at the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands as part of an international expedition organized by the Institute for Astronomy at University of Hawaii.

The image shows how magnetic waves emanate from the sun in brilliant nano-flares. Look closely at the image and you can see the impact craters on the moon. The eclipse lasted just over 5 minutes.

See the full image showing all nearby stars. 

Miloslav Druckmüller, Peter Aniol, Vojtech Rušin, Ľubomír Klocok, Karel Martišek, Martin Dietzel

Nanowire

As components of electronic devices get ever smaller, wires connecting those components must also shrink in proportion. At the micron to nanometer scale, where devices are now being built, the wave nature of matter is becoming critical. This may be an advantage or it may be a problem. Making and understanding nanowires is certainly a challenge. Real nanowires have imperfections.

Eric J. Heller, Harvard University

The Eye of a Honeybee

Each of a honeybee's two compound eyes comprise a complex network of 6,000 hexagonal units for capturing light. The eyes are attuned to rapid movement-useful for keeping up with a speedy queen during her mating flight-and geometrical patterns. Bees tend to prefer radial, symmetrical arrangements typical of many flowers. Honeybees can also respond to a wide range of colors. They cannot perceive the color red, but they can see ultraviolet light. UV patterns on flower petals, while invisible to humans, attract bees and may help them distinguish between plant species.

Manfred Kage/Peter Arnold

Everything We Know About Yeast

You’re looking at the genetic composition of baker’s yeast, shown in full glory. It’s essentially a road map that shows how the cells are connected through nodes, similar to the image from last week that showed node connections on the Internet. “Genes typically do not function in isolation such that mutation in one gene will influence the activity of many other genes in a cell or organism,” says Michael Costanzo, PhD, a researcher at Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research at the University of Toronto, speaking to FoxNews.com. “This is important to our understanding of disease since most genetic disorders are not caused by mutation of a single gene but rather by rare combinations of mutations in different genes. Thus, determining how genes interact with each other will help us understand the basis of genetic disease.”

Anastasia Baryshnikova/University of Toronto

Bat Sensors Revealed!

Don’t say the phrase “laryngeal echolocation” on a full stomach. The term is related to biosensors in bats and is the bone section that helps them fly at night. New research at the University of Western Ontario reveals that echolocation varies between bat species, as shown in the accompanying 3D scan. The blue section shows how the stylohyal bone (in blue) connects to the larynx (in yellow) near the eardum. “In this non-echolocating species, the stylohyal passes interior to the bone surrounding the eardrum without contacting it,” says Jeff Renaud, a researcher on the project.

The University of Western Ontario

Human Hair, Really, Really Close

This photo of a 4-millimeter human scalp hair follicle came from a 44-year-old Caucasian male. It was sliced vertically into tiny, 200-micron thick sections. The sample was multi-stained with antibodies to visualize the nerves (in red), the sensory neuropeptide CGRP (in green), and vasculature (blue).

Marna E. Ericson and Maria K. Hordinsky, Department of Dermatology, University of Minnesota

Brain, Heal Thyself

In this brain scan image, the dendritic cells (in green) are fighting off an infection, surrounding the stroke-damaged tissue like an army protecting a base and stimulating T cells (in red) to prevent further damage. Researchers at Rockefeller University have shown how dendritic cells are not just present (as they suggested in 2008) but active. The research is important because it shows how the human body fights off infection in multiple locations – arms, legs, and in the brain.

The Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Rockefeller University

Lazy Earwigs Up Close

Note the small, slightly curved pincers on the back of this female adult earwig, photographed up close with a scanning electron micrograph. Male earwigs have larger pincers that are more curved, and slightly more dangerous to plants. This will help identify them (if you have a microscope that can capture at 4x magnification) at night, when they come out to feed on flowers. Finely folded wings and leather-like outer-coating protect this microscopic creature, which tends to sit idle in tree bark all day.

Power and Syred/SciencePhoto.com

Up Close With Your Tongue

A high energy beam scanner, called a scanning electron micrograph, was used to capture this image, which shows the surface of a human tongue. The protruding objects, called filiform papillae, can sense pressure. The flaky appearance of the papillae results from the fact that they are constantly shedding their skin to increase sensitivity.

Science Photo/Photo Researchers

Film Emulsion in Miniature

This image, which is only about 2mm in size, shows a film negative aged over about four years. The scientific process -- which uses emulsion and film degradation -- reveals a unique rendering. Chris Rochelle uses a dry platetechnique for creating the works of art. The emulsion and aging produce strange yellow and blue colors. 

"You can see traces of the landscape image on the right and left of the image," says Rochelle. "This one is about 4mm wide by 2mm high. Dry plates (glass plates with gelatin silver coating) were the first durable photographic film medium (before that 'wet plate' negatives were used) which meant that the plate had to be coated and developed within a very short period of time, forcing photographers to bring the darkroom with them on a shoot to process the image."

Chris Rochelle

Mouse Muscles Restored

Why do men suffer more heart attacks than women? For years, one theory held that estrogen regenerates blood vessels and makes a heart attack less likely. Now, research conducted by Daniel Sieveking at The Heart Research Institute in Australia suggests that male hormones, known as androgens, use a process called angiogenesis to form new blood vessels, which could lead to new regeneration therapies. 

The image shows the hindlimb muscle of a castrated male mouse. Researchers damaged blood vessels in the mice, then introduced androgens that caused new blood vessels to form. Sieveking measures capillary density using these photomicrograph images.

Daniel Sieveking/J Exp Med

How the Internet Works

This fantastic image shows how the Internet works. The strands emanate from each end-point (or node) on the Internet -- essentially a router at a company, government agency, or other organization. The largest "nuclei" are those with hundreds of thousands of connections (some from companies such as Google and Microsoft), and the smaller nodes could be a small company or school. Lumeta Networks produces these images on a regular basis to help the world understand how the Internet works, and the nodes tend to shift and grow over time like a real organism. 

Lumeta

Magnetic Guitar String?

Atomic beams look like a magnetic guitar string, plucked by scattering the energy beams from a powerful magnet at absolute zero temperatures and forming into a logical wave. The phase transitions cause a distinct symmetry between the lines. 

The research, being conducted at Oxford University, is important because it shows one of the first visual cues to how quantum physics might function, suggesting that -- at even an atomic scale -- there is an order and symmetry to how energy works.

Oxford University

When Worlds Collide

When you use a machine called the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, you know the results will be fantastic. This computer reconstruction, created by the STAR detector at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, shows what might have happened millions of years ago when two gold nuclei collided, traveling at the speed of light in and out of the picture. 

Hans Georg Ritter, a researcher on the project, says the actual collision would have been even more uniform. Ritter says thousands of elementary particles would be created in such a collision, and the simulation helps the lab determine, based on the trajectories and properties of the particles, how the collision might have formed and in what state.

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Polar Ice Caps

Summer has arrived in the polar ice caps, as seen in this dramatic image taken recently by the NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) system on the Aqua and Terra satellites that shows an ice bridge collapsing in Antarctica. 

The Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf in West Antarctica routinely breaks apart and reforms. This "sea ice" is thinly layered over the ocean and forms into a long bridge. The break-up occurred over just a 24-hour period, captured in a series of images on January 12 and 13. The photos show an area of detail that is 250 meters per pixel.

NASA

Shipworms on the Rampage

This shipworm is wreaking havoc in the Baltic Sea, attacking sunken artifacts in the area. The worms are capable of completely destroying ship and other artifacts, and it's becoming more common along the coasts of Danish and German coasts. 

Researchers at the University of Gothenburg have determined that the likely cause of the new infestation has to do with climate change and the waters along the Baltic, which are now saltier than in the past. Normally, the shipworms avoid areas of low salinity, but the higher temperatures have made them adapt easier. "This is the front part of the shipworm," says Christin Appelqvist from the University of Gothenburg. "At the end, you can see the foot and the two shells that they use when boring into wood."

Christin Appelqvist/University of Gothenburg

Up Close with a Blood Clot

This electron micrograph of a blood clot shows an exceptional level of detail, part of the Wellcome Images collection. For this image, the photograph was enhanced to show detail and color, but in the center of the image, there is a clearly identifiable white blood cell surrounded by a blood clot.

David Gregory & Debbie Marshall/Wellcome Images

Animal? Vegetable? Both?

This green sea slug – found on the East coast of the US and Canada -- has an interesting ability: It can synthesize the green pigment chemical chlorophyll like a plant. Researcher Sidney K. Pierce, working at the University of South Florida, used a radioactive tracing technique to make sure the slug it actually producing the chemical and not nearby algae. Photosynthesis is a process of converting carbon dioxide into another compound using sunlight.

Mary S. Tyler/PNAS

The Color of Mars

The planet Mars gets more fascinating by the minute. New images reveal a varied surface, with bright layered deposits – here, shown near a plateau in the Juventae chasma. Brown, purple, sandy regions appear across the entire 3/4 mile region, illuminated from the left of the image. 

The deposits are consistent with low-temperature regions. Along the walls, researchers have found that bright deposits are consistent with a persistent rainfall and run-off, but have not determined when this could have occurred or from what source. "The stripes are layers of sediments that were probably laid down by water a long time ago," HiRISE Team Member Ken Herkenhoff, told FoxNews.com. "More recently, they were eroded by windblown sand (the dark dunes seen in this image) to show the layers."

NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Amazing Pics of Pond Scum

At the Queen Marys' School of Biological and Chemical Sciences in the UK, researchers are discovering some amazing creatures in the pond scum. In this photo, the single-celled Plagiopyla looks like a smiling face or Easter Island statues. 

Discovered in the Freshwater Biological Association's River Laboratory, the study has found at least 30 other invertebrates, most about a half-millimeter in size. The pond is in a state of slow decline, so the aquatic organisms – part of the school’s research into what they call "cryptic biodiversity" are a rare find. Researchers have found an additional batch of about 100 ciliates (single-cell organisms) that are invisible to the naked eye.

BJ Finlay

Turn Off Your Brain...With Light

MIT scientists are using colors of light -- called "super silencers" -- to shut down regions of brain activity. Here, a mouse brain is controlled using light that shuts down overactive neurons, in this case the Arch gene. The research is important because it could allow scientists to shut down certain parts of the brain affects by Parkinson's disease, or regions that cause chronic pain or other disabling neurological disorders. 

The light disrupts the ability of a protein to make energy, inhibiting their ability to trigger by not providing the necessary power for firing. Scientists could use colors of light for regions in the brain.

MIT/Brian Chow, Xue Han, and Ed Boyden

Over-Expressive Cells

Cell over-expression is a serious problem in cancer treatment. In the new issue of Journal of Cell Biology, Jan van Deursen of Mayo Research explains how a cell (shown here) produces too much UbcH10 protein, then divides into two daughter cells. In the center, a chromozone is not divided evenly, so a cell could end with too many chromosomes and one with not enough.

"Many genes are expressed at abnormal levels in cancer cells, but not all these alterations play a causal role in cancer development," van Duersen told FoxNews.com. "It is important to identify which gene alterations are relevant. We now demonstrate for UbcH10 that it causes cancer when over-expressed and we provide insight into the mechanism by which it does so. This information can now be used to design new anti-cancer therapies that counteract."

Jan van Deursen/J Cell Biol

Awkward Bathtub Guest

This strange creature, found in the basin of Mexico, is thought to have been one of the edible resources for ancient Aztecs. Known as the Axoloti, the species was first discovered in 1245. Texas Tech University released this photo as part of an on-going food study to determine which resources were used for Aztec populations during the formative periods between 500-1000BC near Lake Chalco, and is an attempt to study migrations and food eating habits.

<a href="http://www.SpringerImages.com">SpringerImages.com</a>

A Biological Grudge Match

A new biological agent is helping treat plaque psoriasi, a skin disease that affects about 7.5 million people in the U.S. The report is published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine and was a "head-to-head" between to agents, one called STELARA (which received a higher clinical response) and the other called Enbrel. The image is a microscopic anatomy that shows the disease, which can be debilitating and in severe cases covers about 20% of the skin, according to the University of Manchester. The biological agents block the inflammation below the skin.

University of Manchester

Bacteria Are Social Creatures

A bacterial species that depends on cooperation to survive is discriminating when it comes to the company it keeps. Scientists from Indiana University Bloomington and Netherlands' Center for Terrestrial Ecology have learned that Myxococcus xanthus cells are able to recognize genetic differences in one another that are so subtle, even the scientists studying them must go to great lengths to tell them apart. 

Upon starvation, groups of up to 100,000 cells of the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus cooperate to build spore-bearing fruiting bodies (green, false color). A fruiting body is shown here growing on an agar surface (brown).

Supriya Kadam and Juergen Berger, Max Planck Institute

Nanodragster!

Scientists in Texas are reporting the development of a "nanodragster" that may speed the course toward development of a new generation of futuristic molecular machines. The vehicle — only 1/50,000th the width of a human hair — resembles a hot-rod in shape and can outperform previous nano-sized vehicles. 

These machines may find use in manufacturing computer circuits and other electronic components in the future.

American Chemical Society

Can Robots Mimic Ants?

Weaver ants (Oecophylla sp.) put the finishing touches on their nests in Buton Island, off the southeast peninsula of Sulawesi, Indonesia. As their name implies, they use living plants to "weave" leaves together to construct their nests, which they vigorously protect. Silk produced only by the larvae helps hold the nest together. 

Scientists are studying the ants' ability to complete complex tasks in order to examine how these findings can be applied to applications for robotics. If ants can produce these intricate constructions, perhaps robots can be developed to mimic their productive behavior.

James Rosindell

Improving Genetic Sequencing

A computer visualization shows single-stranded DNA and ions exiting a carbon nanotube. Carbon nanotubes are versatile, cylindrical structures, and they may just have a new function: Stuart Lindsay, director of Arizona State University's Center for Single Molecule Biophysics at the Biodesign Institute, uses a process known as translocation to pass a DNA strand through a nanotube, which may reduce the cost of and simplify genetic sequencing.

Hao Liu

Fly Larva

What is it? Why Atherix ibis, the aquatic larva of a a fly magnified 25X. This bizarre image was just one of the award-winning pictures from the annual Nikon Small World contest, which showcases the work of photomicrography -- photos taken through the lens of a microscope. 

Fabrice Parais/DIREN Basse-Normandie/Nikon Small World

Fish Scales

Ordinary discus fish scales become beautiful, when magnified 20X and captured by Havi Sarfaty of the Israel Veterinary Association. This photo won sixth place in the 2009 Nikon Small World contest, an annual contest that celebrates the beauty of photomicrography -- images taken through the lens of a microscope. 

Dr. Havi Sarfaty/Israel Veterinary Association/Nikon Small World

Deadly Cold Across Europe and Russia

An image from NASA's Earth Observatory satellite shows the freezing cold weather that has been gripping the northern hemisphere of the planet. Blue indicates temperatures as low as -20 Centigrade.

NASA Earth Observatory

Getting to Know Bacteria

This colorized image shows a Sebaldella termitidis bacterium in the process of dividing into two separate organisms. The bacteria's genome was recently sequenced as part of the Department of Energy — Joint Genome Institute's (DOE-JGI) Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. 

The GEBA project is aimed at systematically filling in the gaps in gene sequencing along the bacterial and archaeal branches of the tree of life. This project represents the first systematic attempt to use the tree of life itself as a guide to sequencing target selection. 

CDC/ Brian J. Beck, PhD, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)

Airplane Know-How Helps Tidal Energy

This is the view looking into the test section of the U.S. Air Force Academy's water tunnel. Three blades of a cycloidal turbine — part of a new wave energy system — are visible at the far end.

Engineer Stefan Siegel and his colleagues test the turbine in the tunnel under conditions that emulate shallow-water waves. Wave energy isn't new, but Siegel and his Academy colleagues are the first to apply their aerodynamics training to the problem. Many existing wave energy designs suffer from limited efficiency, susceptibility to storm damage, and the need to be tethered to the seafloor. The new system is more durable and more efficient than alternatives, and it can be placed anywhere in the ocean, regardless of depth.

Sgt Danny Washburn, U.S. Air Force Academy, Department of Aeronautics

Tiny Fossils Reveal Ancient Weather

The analysis of microfossils found in ocean sediment is illuminating the environmental conditions that prevailed during Earth's long-ago history. Dr Harding and his former PhD student Dr James Eldrett have reconstructed the environmental conditions of the Eocene Period by carefully analyzing the fossilized remains of tiny aquatic organisms called dinoflagellates.

"Because different dinoflagellate species are adapted to different surface water conditions, their fossilized remains help us reconstruct past environments," said Dr Harding.

NOCS

Pig Kidneys Are Surprisingly Pretty

This image is a 400X magnification of the cross-section of an arteriole (a very small artery) taken from the kidney of a fetal pig. When stacked, forty-two serial sections produced this unexpected, highly colorful and detailed 3-D image.

Donald W. Pottle Schepens Eye Research Institute

The Big Bang Machine Works!

After several false starts and years of hype, the Large Hadron Collider (often called "the big bang machine") seems to be up and running successfully. CERN, the organization behind the collider, has released this screen capture of a handful of proton-proton collision events from within the machine. Hundreds of billions of these collisions will occur every second within the LHC, and may reveal even smaller, previously unseen particles. 

CERN

When Lightning Strikes

Storms generally evolve with positive electric charge near their top and negative charge from their middle to cloud base. Scientists are not certain how these charges develop, but they probably involve millions of collisions among ice crystals and large ice particles. 

The negative charge at the cloud base causes a shadow of positive charge on the ground below. The path of a typical cloud-to-ground lightning stroke is carved by a series of stepped leaders, each moving a bundle of charge a distance on the order of a city block. Just before it reaches ground, the step leader induces a huge electric potential — enough to bring up surges of opposite charge from sharp objects or irregularities on the ground. 

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Mr. Mantis Shrimp

Mantis shrimp or stomatopods (such as this female Pseudosquillana richeri) are an ancient group of marine predators only distantly related to more familiar crustaceans, such as crabs, shrimp and lobsters. 

While most live in shallow tropical marine waters, a few species are found in more temperate seas. Although called mantis shrimp, they are neither shrimp nor mantid (a species of insect), but received their name due to their resemblance to both praying mantis and shrimp. Mantis shrimp appear in a variety of colors, from shades of browns to bright neon colors.

Roy L. Caldwell, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley

The Beauty of Fluid Dynamics

When a falling liquid jet collides with a flat surface, the liquid spreads radially until it reaches a critical distance, at which point its depth increases. This abrupt increase in depth is known as a hydraulic jump. 

Typically, a circular jump is produced, but if the liquid is thickened, with a sugar for example, a polygonal or clover-shaped jump occurs. And researchers have recently discovered a new class of jumps that resemble cat's eyes, three and four-leaf clovers, bowties and butterflies.

Jeff Aristoff, Princeton; John Bush, MIT

Basket Star

An international study of marine creatures in the Bellingshausen Sea in West Antarctica revealed the bizarrely beautiful diversity of marine life. "Few people realize just how rich in biodiversity the Southern Ocean is," explained research cruise leader and BAS member David Barnes. "Even a single trawl can reveal a fascinating array of weird and wonderful creatures as would be seen on a coral reef."

Here, a basket Star, or Gorganocephalus sp.,that was filmed expanding its curly, branching arms out over about a minute. It was found with its arms intertwined with an octocoral. Posed here, it is able to filter feed on food floating by in the water above the seabed.

BAS/Peter Bucktrout

Influenza Virus

A 3D graphical representation of the influenza virus's structure, in which a portion of the protein coat, or capsid, has been cut away to reveal its inner nucleic acid core proteins. 

After weeks of shortages, manufacturers announced this week that swine flu vaccine is plentiful enough that nearly half the states now say everyone can get it, not just people in high-risk groups. But the good news comes with a challenge for health officials: how to keep persuading people to get vaccinated when swine flu infections are waning. "We're worried that people might be thinking out of sight, out of mind," said Tom Skinner, a spokesman for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CDC/ Douglas Jordan/Dan Higgins

Nanotube 100x Stronger than Plastic

A nine-year study of carbon nanotube fibers has resulted in a new Rice University finding: Microscopic fibers, shown in this image, could be processed as a fluid in the same way that scientists currently make plastics. 

The fluid, called chlorosulfonic acid, dissolves in a way that makes it possible to manufacture new types of products. The finding is similar to how scientists originally devised plastic materials, such as grocery bags and toys, using a chemical process. Carbon nanotubes are stronger and conduct electricity, making the potential manufacturing implications quite interesting.

Rice University

Shrek to Help Scientists

This 3D renderings depicts a complex process called endocytosis, where cells infiltrate molecules outside a membrane using a protein cage (shown in the center). The image is part of an animation to help students learn about endocytosis. Harvard Medical is using Hollywood-style 3D animation with pixel shading, texture mapping, and shadows to help make the animations more visually interesting. 

"Because molecules are so small (smaller than the wavelength of light) we can't actually see them directly, but we can use techniques to study them indirectly, to understand their shapes and sizes, the way they move around, and their function," says Janet Isawa, a professor involved with the project.

Janet Iwasa and Tomas Kirchhausen, Harvard Medical School

The Tetrahedron Takes Shape

This 3D image shows a series of quasicrystals, triangles that take shape at the nanoscale and hint at how a solid can show order without a repeating pattern. In a study, researchers at the university of Michigan simulated the effects of entropy, which usually causes disorder in a simple compound, and found that it also creates order, as shown here. 

A quasicrystal, according to Sharon C. Glotzer, who was involved with the project, has no repeatable pattern in nature. "A tetrahedra makes up the quasicrystal, colored translucently and outlined in black, so you can 'see through' the material," says Glotzer. "In this way, it's easier to see the local patterns that form in the material, like 12-fold symmetric rings of tetrahedra (larger circles) around 'disks' of five tetrahedra (smaller circles)."

University of Michigan

Salmonella Linked to Pet Frogs

An African dwarf frog, common in aquariums, may be one cause for salmonella, an illness that leads to fever, diarrhea, and cramping about 12-72 hours after initial contact. Salmonella usually runs its course after a week or so but can lead to more serious side effects — such as an infection in the blood stream — and even death if left untreated. Here, a dwarf frog rests after leaping among tree branches.

CDC/ Christine Prue/James Gathany

Removing a Tumor, Carefully

This histology of a tumor shows how broken blood vessels react to the presence of Onyx (shown in black), an ethylene-vinyl alcohol substance that keeps blood vessels from secreting into a nearby artery. The drug is used for removing tumors in the head and neck without as much complication. The research is being conducted at Bielefeld Hospital in Germany.

SpringerImages.com/Bielefeld Hospital

More Detailed Ultrasounds

New two-dimensional ultrasound techniques, developed at the Radiology Department of the Izmir Education and Research Hospital in Izmir, Turkey, show far greater detail — such as the head, arms, and legs, even during the first trimester when ultrasound images are typically less distinct. 

The ultrasound technique uses high-frequency transvaginal scanning to increase resolution. Doctors performing these scans will be able to check for embryonic developments and any chromosonal defects.

SpringerImages.com

Cholera Floats, Then Swarms

These free-floating cholera bacteria look harmless enough when they are not formed together, as these individual cells demonstrate. The University of California in Santa Cruz is studying how cholera behaves before it becomes a deadly pathogen, usually during a natural disaster or when the water supply becomes unstable — which is common during war and in poverty-stricken areas. The growth patterns in free-flowing cholera change dramatically and form into a dangerous biofilm.

University of California, Santa Cruz

Bug Eyes in the Wild

Science labs across the world churn out the most startling images—maps of the human brain, cancer research that shows how molecules interact, DNA sequences that look like works of art. In this one gallery, we round up the latest findings in the world of science, as told through pictures. 

This adult male Thiodina puerpera jumping spider, captured in the wild, has a body about 7mm long and bulging anterior median eyes to help the spider know when to pounce. Thomas Shahan uses a 28mm lens and has to get low to the ground to capture these close-up photographs. "Jumping spiders are harmless, highly beneficial arthropods that vary greatly in terms of color and appearance — making them one of the most fascinating and beautiful groups of animals on the planet," he says.

www.thomasshahan.com

Snowflake Study Reveals Ozone Clues

We know every ice crystal is unique, but why? In a Purdue study, doctoral student Travis Knepp grows the crystals in a small chamber and examines how they take shape over time. The main revelation: the crystals make sharp contrasts in shape and size based on the temperature around them and the presence of what Knepp calls a "quasi-liquid" — the thin layer of water present on all ice forms, even your driveway in winter. 

His research, part of the Paul Shepson Lab at Purdue, has implications for studying the ozone layer and climate change, especially in terms of how polar ice caps are receding.

Paul Shepson Lab/Purdue University

Parasites That Just Won't Die

New research at Tufts University School of Medicine reveals how a parasite, called Trypanosoma cruzi and known to be the cause of Chagas disease (which affects 8 to 11 million people, mostly in Latin America), can prolong survival in infected cells. 

The parasite, shown here attached to a human cell, activates Akt, an enzyme that prevents the parasite from dying. The research is important in early detection of the disease, which is lifelong but symptoms usually occur only after 10-20 years. Those that suffer from Chagas disease may have had an undetected insect bite as a child.

Tufts University

Thanks for the Hubble Retrofits

A new camera on the Hubble space telescope is working quiet well, thanks. The camera — installed on the last space shuttle mission — is already providing some stunning photos, this one of a planetary nebulae called the Bug nebulae. A dying star that emits gas, dust, and ice, the nebulae is like a fantastic cloud, in this case the remains from a star that is 35 times hotter than the sun (2,000c).

Anthony Holloway, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics

Breast Cancer Cells in 3D

This cell sample of breast tissue shows how cancer cells take a 3D shape. The research, conducted by the National Cancer Institute, will helps doctors understand how cancer forms and distinguish between cancerous cells and normal cells, an aid in diagnosing and treating the disease. 

To find the 3D shape, researchers used a process called fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to examine 20 genes, 11 of them from normal cells and 14 from cancerous cells. During the study, scientists noted that the cancerous cells would take on a distinct 3D shape as shown.

Meaburn, K.J., et al/J. Cell Biology

Stem Cells Repair Wounds

Stem cells are like minor miracles: They help generate new kinds of cells and can aid in disease research. In a new study at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, scientists have discovered that skin-derived precursors (SKPs) on skin (shown here) help stem cells to cause a wound to heal. 

This is an important finding because SKPs maintain skin and promote healing, and also cause hair follicles to grow. Once scientists understand how SKPs cause this repair, new drugs could be developed that trigger stem cells into action and help treat diseases such as those in the spinal cord.

Hospital for Sick Children

Prehistoric Pottery, Modern Techniques

This image, taken using a scanning electron microscope at the Smithsonian Institute, is part of James Feathers' research project at the University of Washington. Feathers is studying the low-fire, sand-tempered pottery techniques used in prehistoric eras. The ceramic has rounded edges and a smooth service, which are evidence of early sintering techniques, methods for making objects from powder. The photos are part of series that show magnified views of pottery at low-fire and high-fire temperatures.

SpringerImages.com/University of Washington/James Feathers

DNA Disproves Hitler's Skull

Linda Strausbaugh, a University of Connecticut molecular and cell biology professor, has made a remarkable discovery. Since World War II, this skull — held in the Russian national archives — was believed to be that of Adolf Hitler, found in Germany after his death. 

Strausbaugh used bone fragments from the skull to perform DNA tests that showed the skull was from a woman and could not have been Hitler's. The photograph was taken by Nicholas Bellantoni, an anthology professor at UConn who also works with Connecticut State Museum of Natural History and is the state archeologist.

University of Connecticut

Alien Invader or Wildflower?

This extreme close-up of a wildflower took second place in the Nikon Small World competition. Magnified 150 times, the yellow flower looks like an alien antennae, but it's actually a cross-section of one blossom stem from a wildflower known as the sonchus asper. Gerd A. Guenther, an organic farmer from Düsseldorf in Germany, took the photo on his own farm.

Nikon Small World

First Place in Genome Wars

This up-close-and-personal image took first place in the Nikon Small World competition, but it's a first in another way as well: The plant (known in scientific circles as Arabidopsis thaliana) is the first to have its genome sequenced. Dr. Heiti Paves of the Tallinn University of Technology in Estonia used confocal microscopy to capture this shot. Dr. Paves also studies chicken embryo development and embryonic neurons.

Nikon Small World

Antlion in Your Sandals

Is this a horrifying creature from Mars or just a bed bug that could be resting under your pillow right now? Thankfully, it's neither. The 13x magnification shows a larval-stage antlion, more commonly called a doodlebug or sand bug. Found mainly on dry and sandy beaches in North America and Europe, there are at least 200 species of the antlion. The strands that look like hair are actually more like antennas (called chitin) that sense temperature and chemical changes.

Janice Haney Carr

LHC Fully Operational

The Large Hadron Collider, part of the CERN lab in Geneva, is now operational. This simulation shows how two lead ions (atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons) could collide. The quarks (protons and neutrons) are in red, blue and green. The hadrons (a subatomic particle composed of quarks that cause a reaction) are shown in white. 

The particle accelerator, which experienced problems about a year ago and again this summer, may help scientists determine the origin of the universe. The LHC was featured prominently in the opening sequences of the movies "Angels & Demons," directed by Ron Howard.

CERN

Measuring Storm Height

NASA's CloudSat satellite captures Typhoon Nida as it moves over the Western Pacific Ocean. Over the weekend, scientists discovered that the cloud tips were not as high as once thought, which means fewer thunderstorms. Winds are still running as high as 100 MPH, and as of Monday, the weather formation was a Cat 1 storm. The storm approached Guam, causing massive waves, but winds subsequently weakened.

NASA, MODIS

Jumping Peptides

Models of tiny protein segments, called peptides, are shown on a real image of the atomic layer of a crystal structure in this composition from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. The biomolecules are difficult to show in any detail on an atomic surface without fudging the data. In the study, the peptides would attack the molecule of an atomic particle, then jump to the next particle. 

The research helps explain the process of biomineralization, a process where organic materials control the growth of inorganic crystals, which can prevent unhealthy deformations in the body.

James De Yoreo and Raymond Friddle / Lawrence Livermore and Berkeley National Labs

Complex plant lattices

Intertwining lattices—threads that measure just 100- to 200-nm each—twisting in a helix, a 3D curvature in space. This plant cell shows a synaptonemal complex, which is a cell division that promotes reproduction. The photographer, Dr. Chung-Ju Rachel Wang, won second prize at the Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition with this shot. The yearly competition is now taking submissions for 2010.

Dr. Chung-Ju Rachel Wang/Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition

A Water Flea Gets Angry

A water flea, measuring just a millimeter or two, raises a crown (shown at upper left) as a defensive posture to ward off nearby shrimp, its primary foe that—thankfully—emits a distinct chemical in the ocean as a sign of approach. The exoskeleton is shown in green and tiny nuclei are shown with small blue dots all over the upper body. This photo took first place in the Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition.

Jan Michels/Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition

EyePoppers: The Best Science Photos of the Week

The latest findings in the world of science, as told through pictures. By John Brandon

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