Retired neurosurgeon Ben Carson has overtaken businessman Donald Trump as the top pick of Republican primary voters to be the party’s presidential nominee, a new Wall Street Journal/NBC News poll finds.

The result marks the first time since June that the Journal/NBC News poll has found a Republican other than Mr. Trump to be leading the GOP field. Some 29 percent of GOP primary voters rank Carson as their top choice, while 23 percent favor Trump.

Florida Sen. Marco Rubio and Texas Sen. Ted Cruz rank third and fourth as the top pick of 11 percent and 10 percent of Republican primary voters, respectively.

Some 8 percent prefer former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush. No other Republican garners more than 3 percent support.

Support for Mr. Carson has tripled since July, and he is the first Republican to top 50 percent when voters’s first and second choices are combined. Unlike some Republicans who surged in the GOP contest four years ago, Mr. Carson’s support has grown steadily during the primary campaign, suggesting that it may prove more durable than for those earlier candidates.

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