The House has approved a bill that would speed up congressional lawsuits accusing the president of failure to enforce federal laws.
The vote was 233-181 largely along party lines.
Republicans said the measure was necessary because President Barack Obama has selectively enforced the law.
They singled out the president for multiple changes to his health care law and for exceptions to immigration law. The president carved out an exception to the immigration law in 2012 for young children brought to the country illegally.
Republicans also complained that the administration has not defended the federal law banning gay marriage.
The measure stands no chance in the Democratic-led Senate. The White House has threatened a veto in any event.