The bill would increase the maximum penalty from a year in jail to five years in prison for knowingly making a false statement to police about a missing child. The state Senate unanimously approved the bill Thursday after it passed the House previously.
Caylee's mother, Casey Anthony, was acquitted last year in an Orlando court of killing the child.
But she was convicted on four counts of lying to investigators.
Caylee wasn't reported missing until 31 days after she vanished in 2008.
Casey Anthony completed her four-year maximum sentence while awaiting trial.