Researchers from the University of Sheffield are examining ways to boost low rates of breastfeeding in parts of the UK.
Mothers will be given shopping vouchers worth up to approximately $190 if their babies receive breast milk until they are six weeks old, and a further $127 if their babies are still breastfed at six months.
If the "feasibility" project is successful, the authors will conduct a national research project into the scheme.
But midwives have warned that financial reward should not be the main motivation for women to breastfeed.
The Department of Health has admitted it is funding the project, however, health minister Dr. Dan Poulter stressed that he did not believe "financial incentives" were the best way of encouraging mothers to breast feed.