Rogers filed the lawsuit on Monday in federal court in Nashville.
He seeks a declaration that under his contract he is owed 50 percent of net royalties for the licensing of his master recordings to third-parties like iTunes and Verizon Wireless.
The suit states that Rogers began an audit of Capitol's books in 2007 and was in settlement negotiations with the company for about three years.
Rogers claims the company owes him at least $400,000, although he does not know the total amount because Capitol has withheld some financial records.
Capitol did not immediately return a call seeking comment.